- Acquisition costs
The amount paid in currency or cur-rency equivalent in acquiring an asset, or the current fair value of another form of payment at the time of acqui-sition.
- Actuarial provision
Provision in the amount of the exist-ing obligation to pay insurance claims and premium refunds, mainly in life and health insurance. The provision is calculated in line with actuarial methods as the balance of the cash value of future obligations less the cash value of future premiums.
- Affiliated companies
Affiliated companies are the parent and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are companies in which the parent may exercise a controlling influence on business policy. This is the case, for instance, if the parent directly or indirectly holds more than half of the voting rights, if control agreements have been concluded or if the parent is in a position to nominate the ma-jority of the members of the Manage-ment Board, or of other controlling bodies of the subsidiary.
- Asset allocation
The structure of the investments, i.e. the portion of the total investments invested in the different vehicles of investment (e.g. shares, fixed income securities, holdings, real estate, money market instruments).
- Asset liability management
Management concept in which decisions regarding company assets and liabili-ties are coordinated. This involves a continuous process in which strategies for assets and liabilities are formu-lated, implemented, monitored and revised, in order to achieve the fi-nancial goals with defined risk toler-ances and restrictions.
- Associated companies
These are participating interests consolidated at equity, i.e. by in-cluding them in the Consolidated Fi-nancial Statements with the corre-sponding share in the equity. The major prerequisite for doing so is the possibility of the Group exercising a decisive influence on the operating and financial policy of the associated companies, regardless of whether the Group actually exercises that influ-ence.
- At amortised cost
Recognised on the balance sheets at the amortised cost, i.e. the differ-ence between acquisition costs and the redemption amount is spread out over the corresponding pro rata term or capital share.
- Book value (amortised acquisition costs)
The original acquisition costs minus lasting reduction in value and differ-ences between acquisition costs and redemption amount are credited or debited to acquisition costs, with an effect on income until the amount falls due.
- Cash flow statement
Shows the cash surplus from operating, investing and financing activities generated by the company during a specific period (source and use of funds).
- Combined ratio
Sum of the operating expenses and the insurance benefits (both retained) in relation to the premiums earned in property and casualty insurance.
- Corporate Governance
Corporate Governance refers to the legal and factual framework of the management and monitoring of companies. Corporate Governance regulations are geared towards transparency and thus strengthen the trust in management and control focusing on value creation.
- Cost ratio
Operating expenses (retained) in rela-tion to premiums earned.
- Deferred acquisition costs
These comprise the expenses incurred by an insurance company for concluding new insurance policies or renewing existing policies. Amongst other costs, they include acquisition commissions and expenses for handling the proposal form and risk underwriting.
- Deferred taxes (active/passive)
Deferred taxes arise from temporary differences between the commercial balance sheet and the balance sheet for tax purposes, and those resulting from uniform valuation standards throughout the Group. The calculation of deferred taxes is based on the specific tax rates of each country that the Group companies are based in; changes in the tax rate that have been decided on as at the balance sheet date are included.
- Deposits receivable/payable under reinsurance business
Amount receivable by the reinsurance company from the ceding company on the basis of the reinsurance business accepted by the reinsurer and which, for the latter, is similar to an in-vestment. The amount equals the amount the ceding company provides as collat-eral. Analogously: deposits payable.
Financial contracts whose value de-pends on the price development of an underlying asset.
- Direct insurance business
Insurance contract taken out by a direct (primary) insurance company, with a private person or company as opposed to reinsurance business ac-cepted (indirect business) which re-fers to the business accepted from another direct (primary) insurer or reinsurance company.
Diversification is a business policy instrument that generally involves positioning or distributing the ac-tivities of a company over various areas to avoid dependence on single factors.
The weighted average maturity of an interest-sensitive financial invest-ment or a portfolio. It is a risk measure of the sensitivity of finan-cial investments to changes in the rate of interest.
The consolidated profit for the year divided by the average number of shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per share include subscription rights exercised or to be exercised in the number of shares, and in the consoli-dated profit for the year.
- Earned premiums
The premiums earned on an accrual basis, which determine the year’s income. For calculating the amount of earned premiums, in addition to gross premiums written, the change in un-earned premiums in the business year, the provision for expected cancella-tions and other receivables from un-written premiums are considered.
- Equity method
Method used for recognising the inter-ests in associated companies. They are, in principle, valued at the Group‘s share in the equity of these companies. In the case of interests in companies which also prepare consolidated finan-cial statements, the valuation is based on the share in Group equity. Under current valuation, this measure-ment is to be adjusted for propor-tional equity changes, with the inter-est in the net income for the year being allocated to the consolidated result.
US Financial Accounting Standards laying down specifics of US GAAP (Gen-erally Accepted Accounting Principles).
Excess over the purchase price for a subsidiary and the share in its equity after winding up the hidden reserves attributable to the purchaser on the date of acquisition.
- Gross amounts
Presentation of the balance sheet items prior to the deduction of the amount which is allocated to the busi-ness ceded to a reinsurer.
A way of insuring oneself against unwanted price fluctuations by the use of adequate counter positions, par-ticularly in derivatives.
International Accounting Standards.
International Financial Reporting Standards. As of 2002, the term IFRS refers to the entire concept of stan-dards adopted by the International Accounting Standards Board. Standards that were adopted before are still called International Accounting Stan-dards (IAS).
- Insurance benefits
Expenses (net of the reinsurer’s share) arising from claim settlement, premium refunds and profit participation, and from changes in the actuarial provi-sions.
- Loss ratio
Retained insurance benefits in prop-erty and casualty insurance, in rela-tion to premiums earned.
- Minority interests
Shares in the equity of associated companies that are not held by Group companies.
- Minority interests in net profit
The share of net profit allocated not to the Group, but to shareholders outside of the Group holding interests in associated companies.
- Operating expenses
This item includes acquisition ex-penses, the handling of the policy portfolio and reinsurance expenses. After deduction of commissions and profit participations received under reinsurance business ceded, the re-maining expenses are the net operating expenses.
Total premiums written. All compulsory premiums in the financial year, from insurance policies in direct business and reinsurance business accepted.
- Profit participation
In life and health insurance, the policyholders are entitled by law and by contract to an adequate share in the profits generated by the company. The amount is reset every year.
- Provision for outstanding claims
This provision includes the obliga-tions for payment of insurance claims which have already occurred on the reporting date, but which are not yet completely settled.
- Provision for premium refunds and profit participation
The part of the profit to be distrib-uted to the policyholders is appropri-ated to a provision for premium re-funds and/or profit participation. The provision also includes deferred amounts.
An insurance company would cede parts of its own risk to another insurance company.
- Reinsurance premiums ceded
Share of the premiums paid to the reinsurer as a consideration for in-suring certain risks.
The part of the risks assumed which the (re)insurer does not cede.
Retrocession is the ceding of reinsur-ance business accepted to a retroces-sionaire. Professional reinsurance companies and also other insurance companies, within their internal rein-surance business, use retrocession as an instrument for spreading and con-trolling risks.
- Return on equity (ROE)
The return on equity (before tax) is the profit on ordinary activities in relation to the average total equity (without consideration of the con-tained net profit). It is used as a general indication of the company’s efficiency.
- Revaluation reserves
Unrealised profits and losses result-ing from the difference in the present market value and acquisition value and/or the amortised acquisition costs for fixed interest securities are allocated to this reserve, without affecting income, after the deduction of deferred taxes and provisions for deferred profit participation (in life insurance).
The possibility that negative factors could influence the future financial situation of the company. Furthermore, in the insurance business, risk is understood as the possibility that a claim will arise because a danger that has been ensured against occurs. The insured object or insured person is also frequently referred to as a risk.
- Risk management
Ongoing, systematic and continuous identification, analysis, evaluation and management of potential risks that could endanger the assets, financial situation and profits of a company over the medium and long term. Target: to ensure the continued existence of a company, secure the company goals against disruptive events, with the aid of appropriate measures, and im-prove the company value.
- Securities available for sale
Available-for-sale securities are securities that are neither meant to be held until maturity nor have they been ac quired for short-term trading purposes; available for sale at any time, they are recognised at par value on the balance sheet date.
- Securities held to maturity
Securities representing money claims which are held with the intention of keeping them to maturity. They are recognised at amortised cost.
Level of own funds in an insurance company.
- Stress test
Stress tests are a special form of scenario analysis with the goal of being able to quantify the potential loss of portfolios during extreme fluctuations in the market.
- Subordinate debt
Debt which is honoured in the case of winding up or bankruptcy only after all the other debts have been settled.
- Supplementary capital
Capital paid in which is agreed to remain at the insurance company’s disposal for at least five years, with no cancellation possible; it accrues interest only to the extent that this is covered by the net profit for the year. It can only be repaid prior to liquidation after a pro rata deduction of the net losses incurred during the retention period; in the case of liq-uidation, it can only be redeemed after those payables have been settled or secured that do not constitute equity or participation capital.
- Trading portfolio (held for trading)
Debt securities, shares and other securities (primarily derivatives and structured products) which are held mainly for short-term trading purposes. They are recognised at current market value.
- Unearned premiums
That part of the premium income of the year which refers to periods of insur-ance that lie after the reporting date, i.e. which have not yet been earned on the reporting date. In the balance sheet, with the exception of life insurance, unearned premiums have to be shown as a separate line item under the actuarial provisions.
- US GAAP
US Generally Accepted Accounting Prin-ciples.
- Value at risk
A method for measuring market risks in order to calculate the expected value of a loss that might occur in an unfa-vourable market situation, with a determined probability within a de-fined period of time.